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Siliguri – The Gateway to North -Eastern India

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Siliguri first gave an impression of a sleepy town, the day we traveled to Impees Hotel from New Jalpaiguri railway station by autorickshaw. Even though we had to pay through our noses, the ride was really an enjoyable one because the inhabitants of this city slowly got out of their beds. The weather is cool and invigorating as the amazing Kanchenjunga shines with an avery of silver in the distance. Our mentality of a sleepy town became a mistake over the days. The bustle, by and large is the contribution of autorickshaws, cycle rickshaws, bicycles and shabby buses communicating on the road.
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The rise of Siliguri as a major hub has started since a major part of the Jalpaiguri district was swept away by floods in 1968. Siliguri, sandwiched between Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts is a transit point in destinations such as Nepal, Bhutan, Gangtok and Darjeeling. Bogdarga airport located on the outskirts of the city offers tourists from other states and outside the country a great stop on trips to all the cities in the North-East connected by air. The Mahananda River, which flows into the city is a major attraction. Places of interest to tourists in the town are limited to the Kali temple and few viewing points on the shores of Mahananda.
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Our hotel receptionist suggested taking an autorickshaw to Sevok, located on the outskirts of the city. It turned out to be a great idea as we rode from the city food to the breathtaking beautiful scenery and reserved forest trails on both sides of the road leading to Sevok. A few kilometers after leaving the town, traffic slowed sharply as we entered the Mahananda wildlife sanctuary. The flora and fauna here is unique. Conservation activities began correctly with conservation to preserve the remainder after the unchecked property and felling of the tree left an excessively depleted reserve. The forest department provides an opportunity for the tourist to enjoy elephant rides in the forests. Our first stop was a bride across the Nandi river which is in fact a branching from Mahananda as the river divides in and flows in two different directions around a hill. The bed in the river was not completely dry because it flowed along a bank. The scene is stunning with a train bride in the background which adds a romantic touch.

It’s time to move on while our schedule is tight. Three and a half kilometers up we reached the steps towards the Kali temple in Sevok on the side of the road. The temple sits on a rocky hilltop. We chose not to get down here as time was running out. Just ahead of it is the point from which the road closes. One will go to Sikkim -Gangtok and the other to Assam, The Coronation Bridge inaugurated just after the coronation of … is located at this point on the road leading to Assam. Visible, the towers rise nearly 400 feet above the river Teesta which flows beneath with a bluish green hue. Teesta joined Mahananda relatively early which is the Indo-Bangladesh border. It has been a place of contention between India and its neighbors for quite some time. The wide river beds where these two rivers meet resemble a large plain spread for miles. Viewed from the Coronation Bridge, the waters of the Teesta look clear and inviting. Without a moment, however, we descended the stairs to the river bank. Spending an hour and a half on the banks, occasionally dipping our feet in crystal clear water from nearby is not enough to satisfy our appetite for more. The spell binding backdrop of mountains and vegetation was intoxicating but sad that we were behind schedule and it was time to go back.

In the evening, a few hours before boarding the train to Trivandrum, we visited the Bidan and Hongkong markets. All imaginable items are available there but the prices are high. Because our hosts warned us about it, we weren’t robbed of a lot of money. The apples and oranges displayed seemed fresh and we brought a little. Walking back to the hotel, just on the side of the road is the famous Kanchenjunga stadium where a football match between India and the Philippines is being held.

9 pm when we arrived at New Jalpaiguri railway station. A steam locomotive was shown at the station and there were a few fans in the crowd, children. The Dibrugarh- Kanyakumari express is late by two hours and the night is getting colder. As the train finally chugs, I can’t help but glance in the direction of Kanchenjunga, which has been exciting in recent days, which is now engulfed in a shroud of darkness. The experiences here, renewing our minds, bodies and souls will stand the test of time, I told myself, arranging inside tight rolls of blankets to sleep well.

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Dwarka – Gateway to Abode of Lord Krishna

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India is a land of different beliefs and cultures. Also many places of religious importance in the country are visited by devotees from all over the country. It is said in the Hindu faith, a person can attain eternal freedom when he visits all the four Dhams or the Divine Abodes. Hindu scriptures also say that one should visit the seven Sacred Cities throughout one’s life to attain Moksha.
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Dwarka is considered one of the Seven Sacred Cities and also one of the four Holy Places. This legendary city was the abode of Lord Krishna after he killed his Uncle Kansa and came here with his family and the rest of the Yadava clan. One legend says that the city was submerged in the sea six times and the present town is the seventh city to be built.
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Lord Vishwakarma, who was the architect of the Gods, built this city. From the scriptures and excavations found, it is assumed that Dwarka was a planned city with many palaces and other facilities used by the public. The modern town of Dwarka is located in the Jamnagar district of the state of Gujarat in India and is at the confluence of the Gomati River and Gulf of Kutch. It is in this city that the Gomati River joins the sea. Dwarka is also the western extreme of the country.
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This city is not visited by many international tourists as it is located in the farthest corner of the country. But Dwarka is popular among Hindus and therefore many followers of the religion come and try to achieve salvation from the cycle of life and death. Since it is a place of pilgrimage, therefore the town is full of temples of Krishna, Rukmini, Shiva and other Gods.
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But the most popular attractions in the city can be classified as:

Dwarkadheesh Temple (Jagat Mandir): One of the most important places of worship in Dwarka is the Dwarkadheesh Temple which has Lord Krishna as the ruling deity. It is also called Jagat Mandir and is said to be built on a Vishwakarma day.
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This temple is built of limestone and sand and is one of the most visited tourist spots. It has a plinth area of ​​188 square feet and the temple is supported by 60 columns made of limestone and granite. The entrance has an entrance from the north and this gate is called Moksha dwar and the exit is from the southern side named Swarg Dwaar indicating that it is towards heaven. This gate leads to the banks of the Gomati River which joins the sea here.
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Rukmini Devi temple: This temple is dedicated to Rukmi9ni Devi, the wife of Lord Krishna. It is a 12th century masterpiece with beautiful paintings and intricate carved walls. One of the legends states that the venerable Sage Durvasa cursed Rukmini saying that he would separate from Lord Krishna and that is why his temple was outside the town’s perimeter, while Lord Krishna was living inside. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions.
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Bet Dwarka: A visit to Dwarka will remain half done if one does not visit Bet Dwarka which is an island at a distance of 30 kilometers away from the Port of Okha. It is separated by a 4 kilometer sea. There are temples of Vishnu, Radha, Laxmi, Satyabhama and devaki on this beautiful island. It also has an almost untouched beach that is not visited by many but is a treasure in terms of aquatic plants and avian population.
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Somnath Temple: Somnath is one of the 12 jyotirlingas of Lord Shiva and a place of religious importance. Devotees from far and wide visit this temple while they are in Dwarka.
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Thus, a person seeking salvation from the cycle of life and death should definitely visit this place and achieve the true experience of the Abode of the Gods.
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The Commuter Airlines of Long Island MacArthur Airport

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Introduction:

Although commuter airline operations, conducted by a variety of almost-exclusively turboprop aircraft that accommodated between 19 and 50 passengers,augmented Long Island MacArthur Airport’s six-and-a-half decade scheduled service history, they were integral to its development as a regional airfield, providing both origin-and-destination and connecting, major-carrier aligned, two-letter code share links to many northeast cities with equipment optimized for sector length, demand, capacity, frequency, and cost.
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These services can be subdivided into “Initial Service,” “Area-Airport Shuttles,” “Northeast Commuter Service,” “Code-Share Hub Feed,” and “Last Commuter Carrier Operation” categories.
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Initial Service:

Initial, scheduled service, inaugurated shortly after the airport’s 5,000-square-foot, rectangular-shaped terminal was completed, entailed a tri-city route system, connecting Long Island with Boston, Newark, and Washington, and operated in 1959 by Gateway Airlines with de Havilland DH.104 Dove and DH.114 Heron aircraft.
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The former, a conventional low-wing monoplane with a 57-foot span and two de Havilland Gipsy Queen 70 Mk 3 six-cylinder, air-cooled, in-line piston engines rated at 400 hp, was designed to meet the Brabazon Committee’s Type VB specifications for a post-war mini- or commuter-airliners, but nevertheless incorporated several “large aircraft” advancements, including all-metal Redux bonding construction, geared and supercharged powerplants, braking propellers, power operated trailing edge flaps, and a tricycle undercarriage configuration.
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Resembling it, its DH.114 Heron successor, seating between 14 and 17 in an 8.6-foot longer cabin, was powered by four 250-hp Gipsy Queen 30 Mk 2 piston engines and had a 13,500-pound gross weight, whose lift was facilitated by a 71.6-foot wingspan. It first flew in prototype form on May 10, 1950.
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Inauspicious and short-lived, the Gateway Airlines flights, only lasting eight months, nevertheless served as the aerial threshold to Long Island MacArthur’s future northeast commuter operations.

Area-Airport Shuttles:

While Gateway’s Newark service paved the way to other, similar area-airport shuttles, it demonstrated that if Long Island MacArthur could not offer further-afield service on its own, it could provide quick-hop connections to other, more established New York airports that could.
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One such attempt, although a little longer in duration, occurred between 1979 and 1980 with Nitlyn Airways, whose Piper PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftains tried to feed TWA’s flights at JFK.

Intended as a successor to the company’s PA-23-250 twin piston private and executive Aztec, the Navajo had a 34.6-foot length and 40.8-foot span. Powered by two 425-hp Lycoming TIGO-541-E1A six-cylinder, horizontally opposed engines, it had a 7,800-pound gross weight and 1,285-mile range, and could be configured with various standard, commuter, and business seating arrangements for up to eight, who boarded by means of an aft, left air stair door.
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Much later in MacArthur’s history, another carrier, enjoying greater longevity and success, linked the Long Island airfield with Newark International Airport. In this case, the airline was Brit, which operated under a Continental Express code-share agreement for the purpose of feeding Continental’s mainline flights and the equipment encompassed the very modern ATR-42-300.

This design, which has yet to be usurped by a more advanced turboprop in 2020, remains one of the two premier regional airliners.
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Following the latest intra-European cooperation trend, the French Aerospatiale and Italian Aeritalia aerospace firms elected to collaborate on a regional airliner that combined design elements of their respective, once-independent AS-35 and AIT-230 proposals.

Redesignated ATR-42-the letters representing the French “Avions de Transport Regional” and “Aerei di Trasporto Regionale” and the number reflecting the average seating capacity-the high-wing, twin-turboprop, not-quite-t-tail with its main undercarriage bogies retracting into fuselage underside blisters, was powered by two 1,800-shp Pratt and Whitney Canada PW120 engines when it first flew as the ATR-42-200 on August 16, 1984. The production version, the ATR-42-300, featured uprated, 2,000-shp powerplants.
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Of modern airliner design, it accommodated up to 49 four-abreast passengers with a central aisle, overhead storage compartments, a flat ceiling, a galley, and a lavatory.

Granted its French and Italian airworthiness certificate in September of 1985 after final assembly in Toulouse, France, it entered scheduled service four months later on December 9 with Air Littoral. With a 37,300-pound maximum takeoff weight, it had a 265-knot maximum speed at a 25,000-foot service ceiling.
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Northeast Commuter Service:

Although Gateway Airlines was the first to provide northeast commuter service from the then-fledgling airport in Islip, many carriers followed in the ensuing decades-this time from the new oval passenger terminal that replaced the original rectangular one.

One of the early ones was Pilgrim Airlines, which operated two nonstops to Albany, one to Groton/New London, two to New Haven, and a single frequency to Washington-National, principally with de Havilland of Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft.

Incorporating the rugged simplicity of its predecessor, the single-engine DHC-3 Otter, designed for remote, unprepared field operations often in the bush, it retained its basic high wing configuration and many of its wing and fuselage components, but introduced double the number of powerplants. Featuring a greater, 51.9-foot overall length to facilitate the installation of up to 20 seats divided by an aisle, a 65-foot span with double-slotted trailing edge flaps, and a redesigned nose and tail, it still employed the Otter’s fixed, tricycle undercarriage and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability.

Powered by two 652-shp Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-27 engines, it first flew on May 20, 1965. Its three versions included the DHC-6-200 with a longer nose for increased baggage space, and the DHC-6-300, which had a 210-mph maximum speed and 12,500-pound gross weight.

Other than the Fokker F.27 Friendship, the DHC-6 Twin Otter became Pilgrim’s workhorse, making the 20-minute hop across Long Island Sound from Islip to New Haven. On the December 1, 1985 cover of its system timetable, it advertised, “New nonstops to Washington and New Haven.”

Connecticut competition from NewAir, which was originally designated New Haven Airways, offered identical service. Based at Tweed New Haven Airport, it advertised itself as “Connecticut’s Airline Connection,” but utilized low-wing, equally-sized Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante commuter aircraft.

Named after the Brazilians who explored and colonized the western portion of the country in the 17th century, the conventional design, with two three-bladed turboprops and a retractable tricycle undercarriage, accommodated between 15 and 18 passengers. It was the first South American commercial aircraft to have been ordered by European and US carriers.

Originally sporting circular passenger windows and powered by PT6A-20 engines, it entailed a three-prototype certification program, each aircraft respectively first taking to the air on October 28, 1968, October 19, 1969, and June 26, 1970. Although initially designated the C-95 when launch-ordered by the Brazilian Air Force (for 60 of the type), the EMB-110 was certified two years later on August 9.

Powered by PT6A-27 engines, production aircraft featured square passenger windows, a 50.3-foot wingspan, a forward, left air stair door, and redesigned nacelles so that the main undercarriage units could be fully enclosed in the retracted position.

Designated EMB-110C and accommodating 15, the type entered scheduled service with Transbrasil on April 16, 1973 and it was integral in filling its and VASP’s feederline needs.

Six rows of three-abreast seats with an offset aisle and 12,345-pound gross weights characterized the third level/commuter EMB-110P version, while the longer fuselage EMB-110P2, first ordered by French commuter carrier Air Littoral, was powered by uprated, 750-shp PT6A-34s and offered seating for 21.

According to NewAir’s September 1, 1983 timetable, it served the eight destinations of Baltimore, Islip, New Haven, New London, Newark, New York-La Guardia, Philadelphia, and Washington-National. From Long Island MacArthur itself, it offered two daily departures to Baltimore, two to New Haven, and one to New London.

Air service was also offered to neighboring state Rhode Island by Newport State Airport based National Air. “All flights are operated with 22-passenger CASA C-212-200 aircraft, providing National Air’s passengers with widebody, stand-up headroom comfort,” it advertized. “In-flight service (beverage only) is provided on all flights by courteous flight attendants.”

Designed by Construcciones Aeronautics SA (CASA) as a multi-role transport for the Spanish Air Force, the high-wing, dual-engine, fixed tricycle undercarriage design sported porthole-shaped passenger windows, a dorsal fin, and a rear loading ramp that led to the uninterrupted, box-shaped cabin. Its civil application was nevertheless considered from design inception.

Intended as a replacement for the Spanish Air Force’s now antiquated Junkers Ju.52/3ms, Douglas DC-3s, and CASA 207 Azors, it was powered by two 776-shp Garrett AiResearch TPE331 turboprops. Two prototypes, first flying on March 26 and October 23 of 1971, preceded the first production example, which took to the sky a year later on November 17.

In military guise, it was operated as a paratrooper, an air ambulance, a freighter, a crew trainer, and a photo surveyor, while its commercial counterpart, the C-212C, accommodated 19 passengers.

The C-212-200, with a 44.9-foot overall length, 62.4-foot wingspan, 900-shp Garrett AiResearch TPE331-10-501C engines, a 219-mph cruise speed, a 28,000-foot service ceiling, and a 16,093-pound gross weight, had a 470-mile range with its maximum fuel.

By the end of 1981, 292 civil and military Aviocars had been in operation in 27 countries.

From Islip, National Air operated three daily departures to Newport to the east with continuing service to Providence and Boston and three to New York-JFK in the west. Philadelphia was the only other destination in its minuscule route system at this time. Passenger check-in, like that of NewAir, took place at the Pilgrim Airlines ticket counter.

Another New England-served state from Islip was Vermont by appropriately named Air Vermont.

Based in Morrisville and established in 1981, it served 13 northeast cities,according to its October 1, 1983 timetable: Albany, Berlin (New Hampshire), Boston, Burlington, Hartford, Long Island, Nantucket, Newport (Vermont), New York-JFK, Portland, Washington-National, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton, and Worcester. It also used the now-crowded Pilgrim Airlines facilities.

Its fleet consisted of Piper PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftains and Beech C99s.

The latter, perhaps its “flagship,” was a development of the Queen Air business/executive aircraft, whose capacity was insufficient for commuter routes. Subjected to a fuselage stretch in 1965, which gave it a new, 44.7-foot overall length, it was now able to accommodate 15 passengers arranged in single seats on either side of a central aisle. It featured an aft, left air stair door.

Powered by two 715-shp Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-27 engines, yet resembling its Queen Air predecessor with its low wing, conventional tail, and retractable tricycle undercarriage, it received its FAA type approval on May 2, 1968. With a 10,900-pound gross weight and 283-mph maximum cruise speed, it had between a 530- and 838-mile range, depending upon payload-to-fuel ratios.

Commuter Airlines of Chicago inaugurated it into service. Although 164 B99s and B99As were produced, the C99, with a 44-cubic-foot eternal, under-fuselage pannier, provided a needed addition to the otherwise standard forward and aft baggage compartments. The latter, which marked the resumption of the type’s production in 1979, had uprated, 715-shp PT6A-36 engines and a 285-knot maximum speed at 8,000 feet. It first flew on June 20 of the following year.

National Air offered three daily nonstops to Newport with the aircraft departing at 0935, 1345, and 1850. All continued on to Albany and Burlington.

There were several other commuter carriers, which, like actors, both periodically and temporarily appeared on the MacArthur stage to collect passengers and transport them to northeastern destinations with an eye toward making a profit. Many did not.

Albany-based Mall Airways, for instance, in existence between 1973 and 1989, served 18 destinations in Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia, along with operating trans-border sectors to Ontario and Quebec in Canada, although hardly all from Islip. A heavy New York state route concentration had it touch down in Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, Elmira, Islip, Ithaca, New York-La Guardia, Rochester, Syracuse, and White Plains with a fleet of Piper Navajo Chieftains, Beech King Air 90s, B99s, and B1900Cs.

The latter, a stretched version of the Super King Air (which in high-density commuter configuration could carry 13), retained the same low wing mounting and t-tail, but its longer, 25.3-foot cabin, with a 425 cubic-foot volume, accommodated 19 with a central aisle. Intended for multiple-stop commuter routes, it was powered by two wing-mounted Pratt and Whitney Canada 1,100-shp PT6A-65B engines and could operate from grass and unprepared fields. First flying on September 3, 1982, it was certified the following year on November 22.

The more capacious B1900D, only the second 19-seater to offer standup headroom after the British Aerospace Jetstream 31, introduced a higher ceiling, greater internal volume, more powerful engines, modified propellers, winglets, a larger tail, and an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) cockpit.

Another New York State-based, Long Island MacArthur operator, reflected by its very name, was Empire Airlines and it flew, at least initially, B1900C-resembling equipment-in this case, the Swearingen Metro.

Founded in 1976 by Paul Quackenbush, it inaugurated service from Utica/Rome’s Oneida Country Airport, often to small cities that had been abandoned by Allegheny Airlines, and eventually touched down in the ten states of Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia, and the two Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

Mirroring the now Allegheny absorbed route system of Mohawk Airlines, the “Empire State” carrier served Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, Elmira, Islip, Ithaca, New York-JFK, New York-La Guardia, Niagara Falls, Rochester, Syracuse, White Plains, and Utica/Roma.

Although it operated 13 Fokker F.28-4000 Fellowship pure-jets between 1980 and 1986, six Metro IIs formed the backbone of its earlier turboprop fleet.

Itself a stretch of the six- to eight-passenger Swearingen Merlin IIIA executive aircraft, it introduced a longer fuselage, increasing its length to 59.4 feet from the Merlin’s 42.2 for accommodation of up to 22, but retained its engines, wing, and tail surfaces. Designed by Ed Swearingen for commuter operations, it first flew on June 11, 1970, designated SA-226TC.

Swearingen itself became a subsidiary of Fairchild Industries in November of 1971, resulting in the type’s San Antonio, Texas, final assembly.

Air Wisconsin became the first major customer.

The upgraded Metro II, powered by 940-shp Garrett AiResearch TPE331-3U-303G engines and introduced in 1971, replaced the original oval passenger windows with square ones, had a 43.3-foot wingspan, a 12,500-pound gross weight, and could cruise at 294 mph.

Empire operated three daily Metro flights to its Syracuse hub, departing at 0905, 1525, and 1830 and facilitating connections to Albany, Binghamton, Elmira, Ithaca, Montreal, Rochester, and Utica/Rome. According to its April 1, 1985 system timetable, “Flights 1 through 99 are operated with 85-passenger Fokker F.28 jets. Flights 100 through 999 are operated with 19-passenger Swearingen Metro II jetprops.”

After Empire was acquired by Piedmont Airlines in 1985, its Syracuse hub joined Piedmont’s own-that is, those in Baltimore, Charlotte, and Dayton.

Northeast carriers often made their imprints on the Long Island air field, fleeting though they were. Late to the scene, Windsor Locks, Connecticut-based Shuttle America, a low-fare, de Havilland of Canada DHC-8-300 operator, inaugurated service between Hartford and Buffalo, but soon touched down in Albany, Boston (in Hanscom Field), Greensboro, Islip (as of November 13, 1998), New York-La Guardia, Norfolk, Trenton, and Wilmington with its half-dozen aircraft.

Boston became the battleground for several independent commuter airlines. One of the largest carriers to connect Long Island with it was Ransome Airlines.

Founded by J. Dawson Ransome in 1967 and based at Northeast Philadelphia Airport, it commenced service that March with 11-passenger Beechcraft 18s, progressively expanding into a significantly sized regional carrier with a northeast route system. It operated both independently and aligned with major airlines for two-letter code-share feed, specifically as Allegheny Commuter, the Delta Connection, and finally Pan Am Express. It operated for 28 years.

Two aircraft were integral to its expansion.

The first of these was the Nord 262. Initially envisioned as a development of the dual-engine MH-260 Broussard, which had first flown on July 29, 1960 and which subsequently became the responsibility of state-owned Nord Aviation, it was modified with a pressurized, circular fuselage to permit three-abreast seating for 24, first flying in prototype form as the redesignated Nord 262 two years later on December 24, then powered by two 1,080-shp Bastan VIB2 turboprops. Three pre-production and a single production example, visibly distinguishable by its dorsal fin, ultimately partook of the flight test program.

Sporting a 63.3-foot length, a 71-foot span of its high wing, and a retractable tricycle undercarriage, it had a 23,370-pound gross weight and could cruise at up to 233 mph.

Lake Central Airlines, US launch customer with an order for 12, inaugurated the type into service in May of 1965, and the aircraft was transferred to Allegheny three years later upon Lake Central’s acquisition. They were subsequently operated by the Allegheny Commuter consortium.

Because its French powerplants hindered further US sales, it was retrofitted with five-bladed, 1,180-shp Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-45As and updated systems, and redesignated the Mohawk M-298 to reflect the FAR 298 airworthiness regulations that governed its operation.

First flying on January 7, 1975, it entered service two years later with Allegheny Commuter, of which Ransome was a member.

The other major type in its fleet, perhaps then considered the “granddaddy” of the early commuter turboprops, was the de Havilland of Canada DHC-7.

Resembling, in overall configuration, the DHC-6 Twin Otter, it featured an 80.8-foot overall length; a high, straight wing with a 93-foot span; four 1,120-shp PT6A-50 turboprop engines; a sizeable dorsal fin; a t-tail; a retractable tricycle undercarriage; and accommodation of 54 four-abreast passengers in a wide-look cabin with a galley and a lavatory.

Intended for short takeoff and landing operations from fields as short as 2,000 feet-and, in fact, was able to operate from the runway stubs at Washington National Airport without requiring a specific landing slot-it generated high lift by means of the five-bladed, slow-turning propellers, that bathed the airfoils’ upper surface and eliminated the need for leading edge devices. Aside from reducing external and internal cabin noise levels, it facilitated steep, controlled approaches.

Construction of two prototypes, preceded by Canadian government financial backing, commenced in 1972, and they first flew three years later on March 27 and June 26. The first production version, intended for launch customer Rocky Mountain airways, first took to the sky on May 30, 1977.

With an 11,350-pound payload and a 44,000-pound maximum takeoff weight, it had ranges between 840 and 1,335 miles, the latter with its full fuel uplift.

Ransome came as close as any other airline to establishing a mini-commuter carrier hub at Long Island MacArthur Airport with 23 daily M-298 and DHC-7-100 weekday nonstops, including three to Baltimore, six to Boston, two to Hartford, one to Newark, six to Philadelphia, and five to Providence.

In its October 31, 1982 system timetable, it proclaimed, “Rely on Ransome Airlines, American’s most experienced regional airline.”

Another, albeit much smaller, commuter carrier that provided Boston service was Precision Airlines. Based at Springfield State Airport in Springfield, Vermont, it operated Dornier Do-228-200s.

Very loosely based upon the Do-28D-2 Skyservant, a 12-passenger utility airplane, it equally sported a high-mounted “TNT Tragfluegels neuer Technologie” or “new technology wing,” consisting of a Dornier A-5 airfoil section with swept tips.

Powered by two 715-shp Garrett AiResearch TPE331-5 engines, it had a 54.3-foot length and a 55.7-foot span. Retracting its undercarriage main bogies into under-fuselage fairings, it had a 12,570-pound gross weight, 268-mph maximum cruising speed at 10,000 feet, and 715-mile, full-payload range.

Its two versions, the 15-passenger Do-228-100 and the 19-passenger Do-228-200, respectively first flew on March 28 and May 9, 1981.

According to Precision’s November 15, 1983 timetable, it offered three daily nonstops to Philadelphia and three to Boston from Islip, the latter continuing to Manchester, New Hampshire.

Another Boston service provider was Business Express Airlines.

Founded in 1982 as Atlantic Air, but stressing its business-oriented route system in its subsequently changed name, it expanded by acquiring some of the carriers that had independently served Islip, including Pilgrim Airlines in 1986 (which itself had already taken over NewAir); Mall Airways in 1989, which gave it access to the Canadian cities of Montreal, Toronto, and Ottawa; and Brockway Air, also in 1989, which provisioned it with a fleet of B1900Cs and Saab 340s. The latter became its MacArthur (and northeast) workhorse.

As the first collaborative US-European design, it was jointly produced by Fairchild Corporation’s Swearingen subsidiary, which already had commuter airliner experience, and Swedish manufacturer Saab AB, which did not, traditionally having focused on the military sector, such as with its JAS-39 Gripen mufti-role combat design.

Turning its attention to a commercial application for the first time, Saab began design studies for a 30-passenger commuter turboprop. Because of the scope of the project, which would have been the largest industrial venture in Sweden, it sought a risk sharing partner, which, in the event, appeared as Fairchild. It would produce the wings, engine nacelles, and tail, while Saab itself would manufacture the fuselage and fin, and assume 75 percent of the program’s development, systems integration, and certification aspects.

Designated SF-340 (for “Saab-Fairchild”), the resultant aircraft, an aerodynamically clean, low-wing monoplane with a high aspect ratio airfoil and large-span single-slotted flaps, two 1,870-shp General Electric CT79B engines, and a retractable tricycle undercarriage, accommodated 34 passengers at a 30-inch seat pitch with an offset aisle, enclosed overhead storage compartments, a galley, a lavatory, and a forward, left air stair.

Featuring a 64.9-foot length and a 70.4-foot span, the aircraft had a 7,500-pound payload and 29,000-pound maximum takeoff weight capability. Typical initial block hour fuel consumption was 1,015 pounds out of the 5,690-pound total.

Redesignated Saab 340 after Fairchild withdrew from the program, with 40 airframes having been built, Saab became the sole manufacturer of it.

The Saab 340B, succeeding the basic 340A, introduced more powerful engines, an increased horizontal stabilizer span, higher weights, and greater range. The 340B Plus offered active noise and vibration control.

Business Express flew 23 S-340As and 20 S-340Bs. After the carrier was purchased by AMR Eagle Holding Corporation and became American Eagle on December 1, 2000, it continued to operate its half-dozen nonstops from Islip to Boston in the new carrier’s livery, although it ceased to independently exist itself.

As perhaps a smaller reflection of Business Express, CommutAir also offered Long Island-Boston service. Founded in 1989 and eventually serving 22 northeast destinations with 30 19-passenger B1900Ds, it dispatched three weekday departures to Boston, with the balance of its eight flights calling at Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse.

Having operated as a US Airways Express and Continental Connection carrier, it surrendered its Boston frequencies to Colgan Air in time.

Code-Share Hub Feed Service:

Although several airlines inaugurated Islip service as independent operators, such as Ransome, Precision, Business Express, and CommutAir, they ultimately continued under two-letter code share agreements with major airlines from the Delta Connection to Northwest Airlink. Some inceptionally operated in this guise.

One of them was the Allegheny Commmuter consortium. “USAir and Allegheny Commuter-a great team to go with,” the carrier proclaimed in its advertising. “Service to over 120 cities in the US and Canada. All flights C500 through C1999 (listed in its system timetable) are approved by the Civil Aeronautics Board. These flights are operated with Beech 99, de Havilland Twin Otter, de Havilland Dash 7, Nord 262, M-298, Shorts 330, CASA-212, and Swearingen Metro equipment.”

Aside from Ransome, Suburban Airlines was a significant member of the consortium, initially operating Shorts 330 and later Shorts 360 aircraft.

Based upon the early-1960’s Skyvan, the former can trace some of its design elements to it. Characterized by a box-section fuselage for straight-in rear loading, a stubby, high-mounted wing, twin vertical tails, and a fixed tricycle undercarriage, it could carry up to 19 passengers or 4,000 pounds of cargo.

While the longer, sleeker Shorts 330 retained the Skyvan’s outer wing panels, it introduced a new center section, five-bladed PT6A-45 engines that replaced the previous Garrett AiResearch ones, a retractable landing gear, and a 30-seat, three-abreast interior with enclosed overhead storage compartments.

Launched after receiving UK government funding, the initially designated SD3-30 first flew on August 22, 1974 and was ordered by launch customer Command Airways in the US and Time Air in Canada.

The series 200, succeeding the 100, offered a 22,900-pound gross weight attained with more powerful, 1,020-shp PT6A-45R powerplants.

The Shorts 360, the ultimate development of the Skyvan and 330 lineage, had a three-foot forward fuselage plug, increasing its length from 58 to 70.6 feet, a tapered aft section with revised contours, a single vertical tail, enhanced cruise performance, and the addition of two seat rows, increasing capacity from 30 to 36.

First flying on June 1, 1981, it had a 25,700-pound gross weight and 243-mph high-speed cruise capability at 10,000 feet. Suburban Airlines was the launch customer.

Its ten-point route system encompassed Allentown, Binghamton, Buffalo, Lancaster, Long Island, New London/Groton, Newark, New York-JFK, Philadelphia, and Reading. In-flight service consisted of miniature trays of cheddar cheese spread, breadsticks, chips, and a beverage selection from the cart.

Its November 1, 1985 timetable listed four weekday nonstops to Boston and five to Philadelphia from Islip.

Another early-if not the first-commuter-main carrier cooperation was that between Henson and Allegheny Commuter.

Formed in 1961 by Richard A. Henson as Henson Aviation, a fixed base operator in Hagerstown, Maryland, it inaugurated a scheduled route to Washington the following year under the “Hagerstown Commuter” name. Inaugurating two-letter code share service as an Allegheny Commuter carrier five years later, it operated 15-passenger Beech 99s.

Headquartered in Salisbury, Maryland, in 1968, it maintained a tri-point route system, encompassing Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington and introduced cabin attendant service with the acquisition of Shorts 330 aircraft, succeeding it with de Havilland of Canada DHC-8-100s.

Resembling its DHC-7 predecessor, but sporting two instead of four powerplants, the 37-passenger Dash 8 was powered by 1,800-shp PW120s and their elongated nacelles provided stowage for the aircraft’s rearward retracting main undercarriage struts. With a 73-foot length and an 84.11-foot wingspan, whose center section was rectangular, but whose outboard sections featured taper and dihedral, it had a 34,500-pound gross weight and 310-mph speed.

Registered C-GDNK, it first flew in prototype form on June 20, 1983 and was delivered to launch customer NorOntair on October 23 of the following year.

Before operating its own DHC-8-100s, Henson, which had been rebranded “Henson, The Piedmont Regional Airline” after Piedmont’s agreement with it, fielded two daily B99s (flights 1710 and 1719) and three daily Shorts 330s (flights 1502, 1528, and 1539) to Piedmont’s Baltimore hub, with connections to Charlottesville, Hagerstown, Newport News, Norfolk, Ocean City, Richmond, Roanoke, Salisbury, Shenandoah Valley, and Washington-National, according to its January 15, 1984 timetable.

Another major carrier-aligned regional, operating aircraft in its major’s livery, using its two-letter code, and partaking of a joint marketing agreement for the purposes of hub feed, was Atlantic Coast, which assumed the profile of United Express.

The agreement, concluded on December 15, 1989, ensured secondary city funneling into United’s Chicago-O’Hare and Washington-Dulles hubs with several commuter aircraft-the Jetstream 31, the Jetstream 41, the DHC-8, and the EMB-120 among them. It was the latter type that it operated into Islip.

Building upon the foundation created by the EMB-110 Bandeirante, the EMB-120, a low-wing, circular-fuselage, t-tail design optimized for 30 three-abreast passengers, was hatched from Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S. A.’s Sao Jose dos Campos facility in Sao Paulo. Powered by two 1,800-shp Pratt and Whitney Canada PW118 or -118A engines, it had a maximum, 298-knot speed and a 30,000-foot service ceiling.

Ideal for commuter sectors, it attracted considerable US sales, including 62 from ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines, 40 from Comair, 70 from SkyWest, 35 from WestAir, and 34 from Texas Air.

Atlantic Coast’s October 31, 1990 timetable stated, “The following carrier has a cooperative agreement with United, offering expanded destinations, coordinated schedules, and the same travel service featured on United. Applicable carrier and United flight range: Atlantic Coast/United Express: Flight numbers UA3570-UA3739.”

Its four daily flights to Washington-Dulles departed at 0645, 1200, 1450, and 1800.

Although not offering much major carrier feed, another code share operator from Long Island MacArthur was Metro Air Northeast, which assumed the identify of TWExpress, dispatching five daily nonstops with Saab 340 aircraft at 0630, 0915, 1250, 1605, and 1825 to Albany with “7000” flight numbers. The first departure, for instance, was TW 7941.

Its December 1, 1990 timetable advertised, “The shortest distance between you and TWA” and “Your commuter connection to TWA.”

Last Commuter Carrier Operation:

Change, the result of market conditions, was the only constant. But as fuel and operational costs increased, the number of daily commuter flights and the mostly northeast cities they served decreased. Consequently, as the airline players disappeared, so, too, did the passengers.

Like a ghost town of commuter operations whose only propeller sounds were those in the minds of the passengers who remembered them, Long Island MacArthur Airport became the stage for a final attempt at restoring them in the guise of Alaska-based PenAir.

Taking advantage of the FAA’s Air Carrier Incentive Plan, which entailed reduced fees to entice new entrants to begin flights in underserved markets, it replaced the Boston service vacated by American Eagle in 2008 by inaugurating two daily Saab 340 departures, at 0840 and 1910, with one-way, $119 introductory fares, citing Islip a logical extension to its three-point route system of Bar Harbor, Presque Isle, and Plattsburgh. Yet logic did not always equal profitability and after a valiant year’s effort, the carrier was left without choice but to discontinue the service due to low load factors.

After the multitude of commuter airlines had opened the passenger floodgates at Long Island MacArthur Airport during a more than five-decade period, PenAir closed them. At the dawn of 2020, there was not a single propeller providing scheduled service to be heard.

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Jenis Dan Taruhan Judi Casino Online

Togel on the web merupakan gebrakan baru di dalam dunia pertogelan. Dahulu kala ketika togel masih menggunakan bandar keliling, banyak sekali orang yang terlihat sering memasang angka dengan harapan dapat memenangkan uang banyak.Manfaatkan pasaran togel on the web terlengkap dan resmi ini untuk mendulang rupiah sebanyak-banyaknya. Kuasai pasaran togel dunia maka anda akan menjadi jutawan dalam waktu dekat! Jadi, apalagi yang ditunggu? Segera daftar sekarang juga dan maksimalkan modal yang kecil untuk meraup keuntungan jutaan rupiah lewat Bandar Togel On-line SALINGSILANG. COM.Togel on the web adalah sebuah permainan lottery yang biasa dimainkan dengan menebak angka yang akan keluar pada pasaran tertentu. Salah satu pasaran yang saat ini paling di sukai ialah pasaran togel singapore ( SGP ) dan Hongkong Pools ( HK ). Kedua pasaran ini merupakan pasaran resmi yang hasil keluaran datanya di keluarkan langsung oleh WLA ( Planet Lottery Affiliation ). Dimana hasil keluarannya di berikan langsung oleh asosiasi togel dunia, sehingga tidak akan ada permainan di balik layar. Dengan begitu, pemain bisa langsung mengetahui data Singapore dan data Hongkong pools secara langsung. Dimana angka yang dikeluarkan diseluruh dunia adalah sama. Selain togel hongkong dan singapore pools, masih banyak pasaran togel online resmi yang bisa Anda mainkan melalui situs judi togel terpercaya di Indonesia.

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Amazon Prime Video: The 31 best TV shows to watch this week

This also means you need to start thinking in English. If you want to say the word “apple” in English, for example, right now you probably think of the word in your native language first, and then try to think of the correct word in English.

Instead, try imagining a picture of an apple, and then just think the English word “apple”. Real fluency happens when you stop mentally translating conversations.

Of course, we humans have become experts in the art of communicating without opening our mouth, thanks to Facebook and WhatsApp! But still, it is undeniable that speaking a language makes it possible to memorize it much better than to simply read it or write it.

Remember how many times you heard people say “I understand English, but I can not speak it.” For many people, language has become an enormous barrier that serves only to diminish their ego. Do not be like them. Search for native speakers to increase informal language exchanges, sign up for a class or take lessons online.

Take Online Course

If you look on the internet, you will find hundreds of courses to learn English online .

They will offer you modules, videos, and resources that will help you learn thinking in English just like a native and speaking fluently by responding to questions instantly. As the mode of teaching is online, you can access these courses from anywhere in the world, at your convenience.

You can keep up with your work too when you are learning.

Be brave to welcome criticism: However good you might be, it is normal to make mistakes. We all get there at some point in life. One of the common mistakes is related to phonetics. Spoken English varies from place to place. For instance, it is alright to pronounce schedule as sheh-dyool (Indian English) or sheh-jool (British/ UK English) or even skeh-jool (American English).

In Ahmedabad, not just for adults, there are phonics classes for kids as well. This way, you can train your little one to pronounce right from an early age.

Never stop learning: One thing that needs to be consistent throughout is your will to learn and explore.

English is one such beautiful language that has a rich history. If you feel you are proficient with the language, you can have a look at the old English. Beautiful Shakespearean plays that have been converted into movies will also help you understand a brief history. Try various activities like listening to English songs, watching English movies, TedTalks, podcasts, etc.

Such activities by spoken English classes in Ahmedabad have proven to be a healthy method of learning English.

Try them and let us know how has your experience been. You can thank us later.

Look, don’t get the impression we just dump our kid in front of the telly — quick, sip your tea — as she also loves books and playgrounds and trampolines and pointing out aeroplanes. Our daughter is a brave, curious, funny, adorable tyrant.

Diversify your learning by choosing an English-speaking actor or singer you like. Then, rush on the Internet looking for the many interviews he could give, then watch them! Watch them for the first time to capture the basics – again, take the time to write down the phrases and terms you find interesting.

The slang words, the stories, the satirical formulas and the anecdotes resulting from these interviews will enrich your vocabulary!

Zeroing in on the right sort of people who can add value to your aim is so very important. In this case, parents whose children are studying in schools that you’re targetting, can be a valuable pool of information.

Kids don’t pick up accents from TV. They develop language from conversations with their peers. Even a parent’s accent may not be passed on to a child if the kid grows up in a different environment. (My wife and I are currently locked in a war of attrition over how our daughter says “bath,” “path” and “grass,” which I suspect I will lose.) So Peppa isn’t warping your kid’s accent: all that’s happening here is children in other countries may pick up specific individual British words or phrases, like “mummy,” “zeh-bra,”  or “your application for disability benefit has been refused.”

When you speak English, what do you think you should notice?

You must say pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. Yes, you are right! But relatively speaking, gramar is the least important thing in speaking this language or even any language you know. You of course need to learn vocabulary, as many words as possible.

Pronunciation is necessary to learn for you and the first thing for others to comprehend what you you express. So I think you have to stress pronunciation even though I don’t hold that you should always concentrate on pronunciation learning. What I stress is that you need to learn each English word with the correct prounication, so that others will understand well once you use this Australian pronunciation. For example, you had better learn to speak English like an American people or British one rather than one from India.

Five Port Cities on the Iberian Peninsula

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When you mention the idea of ​​a vacation in Spain or Portugal, the first thing you think of often is the beach. Between them, Spain and Portugal boast large swathes of beach, with the former offering the warm Mediterranean sea and the latter the great surf of the Atlantic, as an accompaniment.

The two countries also boast some amazing port cities. Holidaying in them combines the ocean view of the beach with the super fun of the city, which is definitely an enticing formula. What’s more, you can also sail from one city to the next when planning a trip around the following list of 5 Port Cities on the Iberian Peninsula.

1) Barcelona.

Barcelona are trembling with certainty and strength. This gorgeous city is a loving and proud cultural paradise that only demands the attention of visitors. Time is best spent here exploring the maze of streets in the Barri Gotic area, making it easy on Barcelonaoneta Beach, and discovering Gaudi’s various architectural works.

2) Lisbon.

The quaint but contemporary of Lisbon is becoming popular with holidayists. This port city lives and breathes in the Atlantic Ocean, which washes its shores and defines most of daily life. Explore the long -forgotten Botanic Gardens, search for monuments in the Belem neighborhood, then let your hair down in the atmospheric Barrio Alto before returning for the night to one of the rented apartments Lisbon offers guests.

3) Porto.

Portugal’s second largest city is associated with the same meaning of the word ‘port’. Not only is it a lively and vibrant port city, it is also home to the most expensive alcoholic beverage, harbor, which is a variety of fortified wines. The Port is exported from Porto to destinations around the world; England and France top the list of importers.

4) Santander.

The small and homeless Santander in the North of Spain proves to be a great antidote to the metropolitan cities of Barcelona, ​​Lisbon and Porto. Life here is all but dictated by the many great beaches in and around the harbor: book a stay in this kind of remarkable 19th-century apartment tailored by Santander, and spend some fun days moving from one beach to another.

5) Cadiz.

The island city of Cadiz is a gateway to the south of Spain. It’s also a gateway to miles and miles of beach idylls, which means, if you’re in Cadiz while sailing around the ports of the Iberian Peninsula, it’s worth traveling around the coastline.

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Ghaziabad – The Gateway of UP

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Even in UP, Ghaziabad is a part of Delhi. In fact, it is in the ambit of the NCR. So naturally, this is the gateway of UP. Literally, it gets the best of both worlds (in this context, stated). Cities placed in such a way that they occupy two states, always have an edge over other areas, cities and towns. You are the best example of Gurgaon before you. Gurgaon is actually in Haryana but a part of Delhi and is now the address of India’s most elite and top bread. The same luck has befallen Ghaziabad, which is expanding exponentially and though basically an industrial hub, Ghaziabad is now one of the most sought after locations in NCR.

Ghaziabad finds that it was mentioned in the dispatches of the Revolt in 1857 because there was a fierce clash between the Indian sepoy rebels and British forces on the banks of the Hindon river. General Hugh Rose, the man who defeated the sepoy Indian rebels and admired the bravery of the Queen of Jhansi Rani Lakshmibai, mentioned the clashes that took place in Ghaziabad. Of all fourteen shipments to London, General Hugh Rose wrote about Ghaziabad next to Meerut and Bithur (near Kanpur), the centers of the Revolution. Military shipments of that period can be seen at Fort William, Calcutta and India House, London.

Despite the proliferation of industries in Ghaziabad, it is a place liked and loved not only by the Delhites, but by all. It is the second fastest growing city in the world. The reason is that Delhi has reached a saturation point. Now these extensions like Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Sahibabad, Palwal etc. Gets more attention and their importance increases day by day. NCR is a seamless expansion and you will never know where Delhi’s border ends and the limits of its satellite cities begin. Everything was one and went under one roof. In a way, it has proven to be a blessing and a blessing in Delhi. Its area has increased and the (population) cargo has gradually decreased, otherwise.

A German architect decided in 2015 that there will be two of India’s best and most independent cities by 2020. The cities will be Gurgaon and Ghaziabad, which are already two of the most popular uber-cities. It’s a shoo-in that over the next 2 years, both areas can handle the stratosphere of progress and modern amenities of all kinds.

I first visited Ghaziabad in 1995 and again in 2017. The city has undergone a sea change. For 22 years, Ghaziabad has leaped from a sleepy city to a buzzing metro. Now, I plan to visit it again on my upcoming visit to the Capital in April, 2018. Ghaziabad is now a throbbing place to cool off. It also has greenery to welcome you.

The Metro, which is a real boon to the Delhites, will go to Ghaziabad (Pin Code 201001) and even more, making it easier to access.

Delhi now boasts formidable location expansions like Ghaziabad, Noida and Gurgaon that have the potential to grow even further.

Apropos, Kumar Vishwas (poet-politician: A strange combination!), Lara Dutta (Miss Universe, 2000 and Bollywood actress) and cricketer Suresh Raina are among Ghaziabad.

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The Best Hospitals in Surabaya

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Surabaya is the provincial capital of East Java and the second largest city in Indonesia. Surabaya is a commercial center with a large seaport – perhaps one of the largest in the region. The population of this city is approximately 3 million. It is the gateway city to Mount Bromo and Mount Bali. Although many residents speak the local language Java, the national language of Indonesia is Bahasa. Bahasa is the official language and is used in business and education. Recently, English has also been used for various purposes such as advertisements and signs to the public.

There are many views about the origin of the name Surabaya. A Javanese legend says that this name is derived from two words suro or sura meaning shark and buoy meaning crocodile. Some locals believe that the two heroes named Sura and Boya were at loggerheads in their attempt to become king of the region.

The airport in the city is called Juanda Airport and has regular flights to the capital city, Jakarta and other major cities of Indonesia. It is the second busiest plane in the country after Jakarta. Some direct international flights are also available from this airport. A fixed taxi fare service is available from the airport to the city, 18 km away.

There are several good hospitals in Surabaya that offer excellent medical care to all locals and patients from different countries. It outlines some of the metropolis ’most famous hospitals.

Siloam Hospital Surabaya

Siloam Hospital Surabaya is one of the largest hospitals in the city. It offers the highest class of medical care in the region and has 160 operating beds and all different types of modern facilities. It was an initiative of a large private property group called Lippo Karawaci. Their three other International hospitals are located in Jakarta. In Surabaya alone, this hospital has 210 specialized doctors as well as 184 nurses. The hospital also provides 24-hour emergency and ambulance services, both of which are available throughout the week.

Rumah Sakit Surabaya International is located in a calm and quiet area, east of the city. It is another major hospital in the city. It started its operation with a vision to create and maintain a reputation of excellent medical service. This hospital belongs to a branch of Ramsay Health Institute, the largest healthcare company in Australia. The company in total has almost 70 healthcare centers in Australia alone. It began its operation in Surabaya in 1998. With 168 bedrooms and the professionalism of doctors from Australia and Indonesia, it has become a unique center for medical care. Other medical facilities such as a 24-hour emergency unit, ambulance, and number of medical doctors in each department make it a desirable place for patients to visit.

Husada Utama hospital became operational in 1993 with a vision to become a five-star hospital providing complete satisfaction to patients and their families. The infrastructure has 220 beds, emergency services, and modern operating theater facilities. All these factors make this medical center a health care center. Husada Utama continues to provide the most outstanding healthcare services with the highest professional medical technology standards.

Menur Psychiatric Hospital is another hospital that provides medical care to mentally retarded patients in the region. They have 30 VIP rooms and other world class facilities to provide medical care to such patients.

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USPS International Surface Airlift Program, What Is It?

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In January 2014, the United States Postal Service will increase their First Class International postage rates by 11% for Flat size mailers. For companies in the Publishing, Catalog and Directory industries, they will face a relatively steep stamp increase since last year.

A great way to mitigate these increases, is to use the USPS International Surface Airlift program (ISAL). The USPS ISAL program is a bulk mailing system that provides economical international delivery of international mails and packages. USPS ISAL shipments are flown from specific gateway cities in the United States and upon arrival in the destination country are treated as superficial or standard type mail for delivery.

To be eligible for the USPS ISAL program a mailpiece must modify the First Class International Mail properties outlined in the USPS International Mail Manual. The USPS ISAL program is not available in every country in the world. However the ISAL program serves approximately 127 countries worldwide and has average transit times ranging from 7 to 14 days.

Benefits of the USPS International Surface Airlift (ISAL)

  • Ideal for less urgent material weighing <2 kilograms
  • Shipped from the United States by Air and then enters the standard mail stream class in the destination country.
  • Avaerage delivery times 7-14 days worldwide
  • Discounted postage rates

How a Mailer can participate in the USPS ISAL program

The Mailer will contact a Local Qualified Wholesaler and speak with an International Mail consultant to help guide them through service. What is a Pos Qualified Wholesaler (PQW)? A Pos Qualified Wholesaler is a company that has been thoroughly inspected by the USPS to meet their strict preparation guidelines. PQW’s will carefully review their operations and procedures to ensure they meet all USPS security and preparedness guidelines. If you are unfamiliar with a PQW in your area, then contact your USPS Global Account Manger for recommendations in your area. Please make sure when choosing a PQW that they have locations in multiple locations throughout the United States to ensure your mail is processed regardless of conditions in your area.

Be sure to ask your PQW the following questions?

1) Do you drop your mail at the International Sorting Center (ISC)? If so, which of the ISCs does your company use? This is very important to maximize postal savings. PQW receives heavier discounts for dropping mail at an ISC location compared to dropping at a local Bulk Mail Center. So you want to make sure they go to your ISC mail and they have multiple locations across the United States going to different ISC locations.

2) How often do you drop off mail at USPS ISC? If your mailer does not have a significant amount of ISAL they can opt to enter your mail into the ISC only a few times per week. This can result in longer delivery times and upset customers.

3) How much weight did your PQW lose per week on the ISC? If your mailer does not have the significant amount of ISAL they offer in the USPS, it is likely that your mail will receive slower ISC treatment.

4) What percentage of your mail is sent to Direct Sacks? This is critical, please make sure your mailer achieves at least 95% of that put in Direct Sacks. What is a Direct Sack? A Direct Sack has at least 3 pounds of mail reserved in a particular country. If they do not meet this requirement, the USPS will need to handle your mail and create a direct sack from other mail they receive. Direct Sacks requires minimal USPS handling and is shipped on the next available flight. So mailing to a company that only creates 70% direct sacks can mean that 30% of your mail is delivered slower than others.

5) What will your PQW do with mail that falls out of the ISAL program? Since the USPS ISAL program does not serve every country in the world, it is important to know what happens to mail that falls out of service. I recommend using a PQW that will ship to all NON-ISAL countries via International Priority Airmail. Many PQWs will only return countries that are NOT INCLUDED in the mailer as undeliverable.

To qualify for the highest discount level, please ensure that your PQW deposits their mail in one of the following ISAL receiving cities in New York, Miami, Chicago, San Francisco, or Los Angeles. If your PQW deposits their mail in any other city, you’re potentially leaving some stamp savings on the table. In addition, if your PQW places mail in another city, you will experience longer transit times then necessary. All ISAL mail regardless of city placement must go to one of ISAL’s receiving cities for International lift.

Which Mailer should use the USPS International Surface Airlift Program?

1) If you have more than 50 pounds of mail Internationally.

2) If your mailing is less urgent and can receive 7 to 14 days delivery.

3) Do you ship small packages that are less than $ 400 worth

4) If your mail consists of printed material that is not a check, invoice, or statement.

If the above criteria fits your current business profile, then I will contact your Global Account Manager at the United States Postal Service or a PQW to start saving thousands on postage.

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Everything You Need to Know About VPN Services

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What is a VPN? VPN is an abbreviation for virtual private network. It can be defined as the technique commonly applied to add privacy and security to public and private networks, the internet and Wi-Fi hotspots.

VPNs are commonly used by different types of corporations to enable them to protect any sensitive data they have. However there is an increase in the use of the personal VPN option today. This can be attributed to the various transitions facing the internet today.

When you use a VPN, privacy is improved to a tremendous extent. The reason why you get better privacy with a BPN is the fact that the initial IP address you may be using has been replaced by one provided by your VPN provider. This is a great way for subscribers to get an IP address from the gateway city they may want, provided it is offered by the VPN provider. You can use VPN to change your location. You may live in New York, but you can use VPN to make it look like you’re in London and so on. Each VPN provider offers different gateway cities that you can choose from.

Security

The security features offered by VPNs are what appeal to most people. There are many techniques that one can apply to intercept any data traveling on a given network. Firesheep and Wi-Fi theft are easy methods applied to hack any information required. The similarity is the fact that the firewall will protect the data on the computer while the VPN will protect the data even on the web.

Typically, VPNs use advanced encryption protections and techniques that guarantee secure tunneling techniques to encapsulate various data transfers. Anyone who considers themselves as a smart computer user can never use the internet without having a firewall as well as an updated antivirus.

Security is becoming very important to most people because security threats seem to be on the rise. More and more people are also relying on the internet which makes VPNs more attractive because they are well rounded for security purposes. There are various integrity checks that can be applied to ensure that data is not lost and the connection is not hijacked in any way. All traffic is well protected and the method is preferred over proxies.

VPN setup

Setting up a VPN is a fairly straightforward process. Usually, you only need a user name and the server address. There are smartphones that are quite dominant and they can actually configure VPN using PPTP as well as L2TP / IPsec protocols. All major OS can also configure the PPTP VPN connection type. Getting a VPN may be the best idea you have for your business. Typically, the number of protocols and features offered grows as time goes on. You can choose the type of VPN you need depending on whether you need it.

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